Northeastern States

A common but unofficial way of referring to regions in the United States is grouping them into 5 regions according to their geographic position on the continent. They are the Northeast, Southeast, Midwest, Southwest, and West.

Northeastern States

The Northeastern United States (also referred to as the American Northeast, the Northeast, and the East Coast) is a geographical region of the United States bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Southern United States, and to the west by the Midwestern United States.

Geographically there is some debate as to where the Northeastern United States begins and ends. The vast area from central Virginia to northern Maine, and from western Pennsylvania (Pittsburgh) to the Atlantic Ocean, have all been loosely grouped into the Northeast at one time or another. Much of the debate has been what the cultural, economic and urban aspects of the Northeast are, and where they begin or end as one reaches the borders of the region.



hop isomerization

Iso Alpha Acid is more soluble in organic solvents than in water (beer is 95% water). This property is used to extract and measure the bittering substances from beer. A sample of beer is made more acidic by the addition of dilute hydrochloric acid. The acid is added because it improves the extraction conditions. The beer is then shaken together with an organic solvent called Iso-Octane. This is done in a special funnel fitted with a tap and a stopper. After a lot of shaking all the bittering substances will move into the Iso-Octane: timing is important for the shaking: 5mins. The funnel is known as a separating funnel.

separating funnel

International Bitterness Units

A separating funnel is a pear-shaped, glassware funnel. It’s designed to permit the separation of liquids that don’t mix. The 2 liquds—Iso-Octane and acidified beer—are shaken together and the dense liquid separates to the bottom. It can then be poured off through the tap. The less dense liquid is left behind.

A spectrophotometer is used to measure the absorbance of the Iso-Octane extract at 275 nm and the result is expressed in Bitterness Units.



The spectrophotometer is an instrument which measures the amount of light of a specificed wavelength which passes through a medium. According to Beer’s law, the amount of light absorbed by a medium is proportional to the concentration of the absorbing material or solute present. Thus the concentration of a colored solute in a solution may be determined in the lab by measuring the absorbency of light at a given wavelength. Wavelength (often abbreviated as lambda) is measured in nm. A spectrophotometer allows selection of a wavelength pass through the solution.