Seafood & Fish

Seafood comprises all bony fishes and the more primitive sharks, skates, rays, sawfish, sturgeons, and lampreys; crustaceans such as lobsters, crabs, shrimps, prawns, and crayfish; mollusks, including clams, oysters, cockles, mussels, periwinkles, whelks, snails, abalones, scallops, and limpets; the cephalopod mollusks—squids, octopuses, and cuttlefish; edible jellyfish; sea turtles; frogs; and two echinoderms—sea urchins and sea cucumbers.

Seafood & Fish are comprise of varied species and varieties,  therefore I have used the generic or most common family name in the list.

Shellfish
A broad term for fish that have, or have had, a shell of some kind. The shell is a type of external skeleton that gives protection and structural support to the fish. Shellfish are divided into two basic categories based on the degree of shell hardness. Crustaceans have a shell-like exoskeleton—usually jointed. This group includes lobsters, spiny lobsters, crabs, shrimp, crayfish and barnacles. The second group, mollusks, has one or two harder shells or have moved beyond the need for a shell. They include the unipods (one shell—also called gastropods), such as the abalone, conch, snail and periwinkle; the bivalves (two shells), such as the clam, scallop, mussel and oyster; and the cephalopods (without shells), such as the octopus and the squid.

Mollusk
Mollusks are one of the two main classifications of shellfish (the other is crustacean). Mollusks cover their soft bodies with a shell of one or more parts, or have developed beyond the need for a shell. There are three classes of mollusks: gastropods, also called univalves, with a single, usually spiral shell (e.g. snail, conch); bivalves, with two shells held together by a muscle (e.g. mussel, oyster); and cephalopods, who have shed their need for external shells (e.g., octopus, squid) but have an internal shell, which is called a pen.

Fish
The term “fish” most precisely describes any non-tetrapod craniate (i.e. an animal with a skull and in most cases a backbone) that has gills throughout life and whose limbs, if any, are in the shape of fins. A typical fish is ectothermic, has a streamlined body for rapid swimming, extracts oxygen from water using gills or uses an accessory breathing organ to breathe atmospheric oxygen, has two sets of paired fins, usually one or two (rarely three) dorsal fins, an anal fin, and a tail fin, has jaws, has skin that is usually covered with scales, and lays eggs.

Also Known As: Ear-shell; Ormer; Pāua
Abalones are members of a large class I of molluscs having one-piece shells. They belong to the family Haliotidae and the genus Haliotis, and are related to clams, oysters, mussels, and squids. During the early years of the abalone fishery, abalones were dried and smoked, or canned for export, and sold fresh for local markets. Currently, most abalones are exported to Japan, either fresh or frozen whole. The U.S. market is primarily in California for live abalone for the sashimi market.

Commercial Examples: Kansom Australia Premium Abalone Beer Seared Black Lip And Truffle Stout / Kansom Abalone And Nori Maki Lager | Red Duck

Also known As:  Stalked Barnacle; Goose Barnacle;
Barnacles are crustacean that forms calcareous (containing calcium or limestone) shells. Barnacles attach themselves to submerged surfaces such as rocks, whales and large fish, also ships, wharves and pilings. The two most important edible barnacles are the acorn and gooseneck barnacles. Gooseneck Barnacles are popular in Spanish, Portuguese and Moroccan cuisines, where they are quite plentiful. Barnacles tend to be gritty and need a thorough rinsing prior to a quick boiling or steaming. The flavor profile is similar to other crustaceans (crab, lobster or shrimp, e.g.).

Commercial Examples: Fábrica de Cervezas Percebes | Hijos de Rivera

Also Known As: Beluga; Oscetra; Sevruga; Ikura; (Cavirs)
Caviar is salted fish roe (eggs) and refers very specifically to the salted roe of sturgeon. When the word caviar appears alone, it implies that it the roe is of sturgeon origin, regardless of whether the sturgeon comes from Iran, the United States, or anywhere else. However, the word caviar can be used appropriately in tandem with the name of another fish—for example, salmon caviar, whitefish caviar, or trout caviar. The largest roe eggs come from Beluga sturgeon called Beluga, the medium sized eggs from Russian sturgeon or Ship sturgeon called Oscetra, and the smallest eggs from Stellate sturgeon called Sevruga.

Commercial Examples: Commercial Examples: #YOLOmælk | To Øl

Also Known As: Clam-common name for various bivalve molluscs
There are two main varieties of these bivalve mollusks: hard-shell and soft-shell that variously named based on their size and region. The most common West Coast hard-shells are the Pacific littleneck clam (also know as a hardshell or rock clam). Other clams include: East Coast hard-shell clams (Mercenaria mercenaria); Mahogany clam, a marketing name for a small ocean quahog (Arctica islandica), harvested off New England; Stimpson surf clam is a species caught off the Canadian Maritimes, a delicacy in Japan and China, where it is called hokkigai.

Commercial Examples: Budweiser & Clamato Chelada (uses clam broth) | Anheuser-Busch; Digger | Carton Brewing Co.;

Also Known As: Heart Clam
Cockles are any of various small, jumping bivalves with heart-shaped, radially ribbed shells. Most don’t exceed 2 inches across. The rock cockle is the best known and most widely used for food. It’s found from the Pacific Northwest to San Francisco, and from large beds off England’s coast. As they burrow into mud or sand, they are typically quite gritty and so must be washed thoroughly. They have always been more popular in Europe than the United States—think linguine with clam sauce, a dish where the meat is less important than the liquid the shells hold. Cockles are very similar to clams. Like clams, cockles can be eaten either raw or cooked.  Many of the cockles sold in the U.S. are flown in live from New Zealand.

 Commercial Examples: Of The Sea | The Wild Beer Co.; Shellfish Basterd | Wild Weather

Also Known As: A variety of crabs exist, names include: King Crab; Horseshoe Crab; Blue Crab; Snow Crab; Coconut Crab
Crabs any one of a large variety of crustaceans that have a shell and 5 pairs of legs, the first pair usually have pincers. They found in cold and warm water, as well as fresh and saltwater. They are popular in many cuisines, and only shrimp are a more popular shellfish in the U.S. The major crabs from the Pacific are the Dungeness crab, the king crab (aka. Alaskan king crab), from the far North Pacific, and the snow crab. Whole hard-shell crabs are available year-round in coastal areas. They can also be found canned as lump or jumbo lump (which is whole pieces of white body meat) or flaked, also called backfin, which is small bits of meat, both light and dark, from the body and claws.

Commercial Examples: Southern Maryland Brew Crab | Cult Classic Brewing Co.; Stone Crab Stout | Coppertail Brewing Co.

Also Known As: Crawfish; Crawdaddy; Crawdad; Écrevisses; Mudbug
Crayfish are any of the more than 500 species of crustaceans that resemble tiny, pale to dark brown lobsters, including claws. Most are fresh water species, a few are salt water. More than half of these species occur in North America, particularly in Kentucky around Mammoth Cave, and Louisiana in the Mississippi Basin. The rest of the species live mainly in Europe, New Zealand and East Asia. Crayfish are very popular in parts of the United States—where they are know regionally as crawfish, crawdaddy and crawdad. They are also very popular in France, New Zealand and Scandinavia. Like lobsters, crayfish turn bright red when cooked. The tail meat is the only edible portion.

Commercial Examples: Crawfish Porter | Texas Beer Refinery; Crawfish Rye’d | Intrinsic Brewing Co.; Crawfish Saison | Mount Gretna Craft Brewery

Also Known As: Sarume; Chameleon of the Sea; Cuttles
Cuttlefish is the common name applied to predatory cephalopods with large W shaped eyes, and ten tentacles, eight of which, like squid, have suction cups on their inner surface plus two longer arms that can launch out to capture prey. Cuttlefish have an internal shell, called the cuttlebone, which is used for control of buoyancy. They resemble a large squid and can reach up to 16 inches in length. Cuttlefish are quite tender, more than squid or octopus, but still need to be tenderized. Like squid, Cuttlefish have ink stores that are used for chemical deterrence, phagomimicry, sensory distraction, and evasion when attacked. 
A common use of the ink is in cooking to darken and flavor rice and pasta. It also can addsa black tint and a sweet flavor to food.

Commercial Example: Cthulhu | Crazy Clown Brewery

Also Known As: Anguilliform; Anguilliformes
Not a popular fish in the U.S. except as unagi sushi, eel is enjoyed in Europe and Japan, where it is treated as a delicacy. This long, snakelike fish can be found in both freshwater and saltwater. All species have a smooth skin with minute scales. The most interesting culinarily are the common eel and conger eel. The common eel is small and sold live. Not a popular fish in the U.S. except as unagi sushi, eel is enjoyed in Europe and Japan, where it is treated as a delicacy. This long, snakelike fish can be found in both freshwater and saltwater. All species have a smooth skin with minute scales. The most interesting culinarily are the common eel and conger eel. The common eel is small and sold live.

Commercial Example: Oh My Gose / Oh My Fishy Gose | Crazy Clown Brewery

Also Known As: Shad; American Shad; Alewife;
Herring are a large family of schooling fishes with a worldwide distribution. Most species are marine, with some being anadromous and/or freshwater. Many species are extremely abundant, making them important forage for larger predators. Herring support some of the largest commercial fisheries in the world. Many herring species are similar in appearance and can be very difficult to distinguish from each other. Herring are laterally compressed, silvery fish with large, easily detached scales, and a belly with a sawlike keel. They have deeply forked tails, no spines, a single soft dorsal fin and abdominal pelvic fins. Scales are absent from cheeks and opercles. There is no lateral line on the body. The base of the dorsal fin is located over the base of the pelvic fins. There is a small flap of tissue (axillary process) present at the base of the pelvic fin.

Commercial Example: Ucho Od Śledzia | Piwoteka

Also Known As:  (Maine) American Lobster
Years ago, lobsters were considered a trash fish, today, those same trash fish command $18.00 a pound in restaurants. Lobsters have long bodies with muscular tails, and live in crevices or burrows on the seafloor. There are two major varieties: those with and those without claws. With claws, the most common is the U.S. is the Maine Lobster. In Europe, it is the European lobster. Both have 5 pairs of legs, one of which forms their distinctive claws. The European lobster is smaller. The second major variety is the clawless lobster, the suppliers of most lobster tails which are known as Spiny or Rock lobsters. Live lobsters can be found year-round, and should be cooked live or quickly after death.

Commercial Example: Choc Lobster | Dogfish Head Craft Brewery; Of The Sea | The Wild Beer Co.; Saison Dell’Aragosta | Oxbow Brewing Co.

Also Known As: Freshwater Clams; Naiads; Unionids
While this bivalve mollusk enjoys enormous popularity in Europe, Americans for the most part until recently tended to ignore them in favor of oysters and clams. There are approximately 17 species of edible mussels that are harvested or cultured worldwide. They all have thin, oblong shells ranging from 1-1/2 to 6 inches in length, and vary in color from blue to green to a yellow-brown. The most common mussel is the blue mussel found along the Atlantic (including Maine and Prince Edward Island), Pacific and Mediterranean coasts. Live mussels are available year-round, but West Coast mussels can only be had from November through April because of a regional parasite. Canned plain or smoked mussels are also available.

Commercial Examples: Auld Bulgin’ Boysterous Bicep | Murray’s Brewing Co.; Mussel Stout | Bellarine Brewing Co.

Also Known As: (Pacific) Hama Hamas; Shoalwaters; Fanny Bays; Yaquina Bays; (Eastern) Blue Points; Malpeques; Chincoteagues; (Japanese) Kumamoto; Kumos; Miyagi
This bivalve mollusk is a culinary favorite found around the world in both natural and cultivated beds. There are three primary species harvested in the United States: the Pacific (or Japanese), Eastern (or Atlantic) and the Olympia. Oysters gains their flavor as much from from its terroir (environment) as its species. Oysters spawn then and the meat from spawning oysters is milky and soft. Oysters can also be found canned, frozen and smoked. Because their flavor varies, oysters are usually marketed by where they’re grown, so there are scores of market names for the same species.

Commercial Examples: San Salvador Winter Black Lager | Ballast Point Brewing Co.; Frisky Stout | Outlander Brewery; Auld Bulgin’ Boysterous Bicep | Murray’s Brewing Co.

Also Known As: Escallop; Fan Shell; Comb Shell
A very popular bivalve mollusk with matching fan-shaped shells frequently used in dishes such as the famous Coquilles St. Jacques. There are hundreds of species of scallops around the world, but three of them dominate scallop sales in the U.S.: North Atlantic sea scallops, bay scallops and the Japanese sea scallop. The most common portion eaten in the U.S. is the round adductor muscle, the disc-shaped white meat which connects a scallop’s tissue to its shell. In most other countries, however, scallops are eaten with the roe attached to the adductor meat. Live scallops, which are eaten whole like clams or oysters, are also increasingly popular.

Commercial Examples: Bay Scallop Stout | Montauk Brewing Co.; Great Bear Scollop Stout | Wheelhouse Brewing Co.

Also Known As: Sea Squirt;  Meongge; Maboya; Hoya
The sea pineapple is an edible ascidian consumed primarily in Korea, and to a lesser extent in Japan. Sea pineapple is known for its unique acquired taste that is favored by connoisseurs tasting the like the ocean with a refreshing sweetness. Sea pineapples live in shallow water, usually attached to rocks and artificial structures, an example of marine biofouling. Halocynthia roretzi is adapted to cold water: it can survive in water temperatures between 2–24 °C (36–75 °F), but optimum temperature is around 12 °C (54 °F). Sea pineapples are known for their peculiar appearance that strongly resembles a grenade with small fiery-looking bumps. It is red and rubbery and when squeezed, the bumps squirt out water.

Commercial Example: HOYA Smoke Ale | Sekinoichi Shuzo

Also Known As: Sea Hedgehogs; Sand Dollars; Sea Biscuits
Sea Urchins are a sea animal that can grow up to 10 inches in diameter and consists of a hard shell that is covered by prickly spines, similar to a porcupine. Sea urchins live on the seabed of every ocean and inhabit every depth zone — from the intertidal seashore down to 5,000 metres (15,000 feet).  Their main defense against more agile predators like eels and otters is their hard, spiny test, or shell. Some of the more interesting types of the 950 species include. Some of the more interesting types of the 950 species include: Pacific purple sea urchin, is a key ingredient in uni sushi;. Green sea urchin is one of the 18 edible species. Its gonads, and glands within the shell, are primarily used in Japanese uni sushi.

Commercial Examples: UNI Sea Urchin & Lemon Myrtle Gose | Sailors Grave Brewing Co.; Uni Ale | Burnside Brewing Co.; Umami Urchin | Bådin

Also Known As: Ebi; Prawn
A very popular, small crustacean-type shellfish which includes hundreds of species worldwide. Shrimp is by far America’s favorite shellfish. While there are hundreds of different species of crustacean, most can be divided into either warm-water or cold-water shrimp. Generally, the small shrimp come from cold water, and large from warm water. Regardless, they are marketed by size, which varies by region, and sometimes by merchant. Shrimp are available year-round, and can be found in many forms—shelled or unshelled, raw or cooked, fresh or frozen.  The six main farmed shrimp are: Akiami paste shrimp (family Sergestidae); Southern rough shrimp; Northern prawn; Penaeus shrimp nei; Natantian Decapoda nei; Giant tiger prawn. 

Commercial Examples: Major Tôm | Crazy Clown Brewery 

Also Known As: Dried Fish
Stockfish is unsalted fish, especially cod, dried by cold air and wind on wooden racks (which are called “hjell” in Norway) on the foreshore. The drying of food is the world’s oldest known preservation method, and dried fish has a storage life of several years. From February to May, the fish hangs out by the sea, exposed to the elements of Northern Norway. With temperatures around 0°C and just the right balance of wind, sun and rain, the climate is perfect for drying fish. It is nature that turns this magnificent fish into the valuable, special and delicious stockfish. The method is cheap and effective in suitable climates; the work can be done by the fisherman and family, and the resulting product is easily transported to market. Stockfish is cured in a process called fermentation where cold-adapted bacteria matures the fish, similar to the maturing process of cheese.

Commercial Examples: SMUGAN NR.C3 | Borg Brugghús

Also Known As: Katsuobushi, Bonito Flakes
Katsuobushi is a simmered, smoked and fermented skipjack tuna, sometimes referred to as bonito or bonito flakes. The fish is beheaded, gutted, and filleted, with the fatty belly trimmed off. The fillets are then arranged in a basket and simmered just below boiling for an hour to an hour and a half, depending on their size. The rib bones are then removed and the fillets smoked for up to a month using oak, pasania, or castanopsis wood. They are smoked for 5-6 hours in one session, left to rest one day for the condensation to rise to the surface, then fired and smoked again the next day. This smoking and resting cycle is repeated 12–15 times in total. The built-up tar from the smoke removed using a grinder. The last stage allowing the fish to sun-dry using the assistance of mold after being are sprayed with Aspergillus glaucus culture and left for two weeks in a closed cultivation room. 

Commercial Example: Sorry Umami IPA | Yo-Ho Brewing Co.; Umami Monster | Garage Project

Also Known As: Calamari
Squid is any of more than 300 species of cephalopods that has ten arms and is related to both the octopus and cuttlefish. Squid are mollusks, just like clams, mussels and oysters. The difference is squid have an internal shell, which is called a pen. Although almost a hundred species of squid are fished commercially, two species, the Japanese flying squid and the Argentine shortfin squid, account for over half the world harvest. Squid is the second most widely consumed shellfish in the world but is more popular in Asian and Mediterranean cuisines than in U.S., with the exception of fried calamari, a staple appetizer at many restaurants, and in sushi. As with octopus, the ink can be used to color or flavor dishes such as Black Pasta or Calamares en su Tinta (“squid in their ink”).

Commercial Examples: Funky Sea Monkey | Monkey Paw Brewing Co.; Nimble Lips, Noble Tongue Vol. 3 (2014) IPA With Squid Ink  / Really Squiddy Waterslides | 3 Sheeps Brewing Co.

Also Known As: Dried Fish
Stockfish is unsalted fish, especially cod, dried by cold air and wind on wooden racks (which are called “hjell” in Norway) on the foreshore. The drying of food is the world’s oldest known preservation method, and dried fish has a storage life of several years. From February to May, the fish hangs out by the sea, exposed to the elements of Northern Norway. With temperatures around 0°C and just the right balance of wind, sun and rain, the climate is perfect for drying fish. It is nature that turns this magnificent fish into the valuable, special and delicious stockfish. The method is cheap and effective in suitable climates; the work can be done by the fisherman and family, and the resulting product is easily transported to market. Stockfish is cured in a process called fermentation where cold-adapted bacteria matures the fish, similar to the maturing process of cheese.

Commercial Examples: SMUGAN NR.C3 | Borg Brugghús

Seaweeds are marine algae: saltwater-dwelling, simple organisms that fall into the somewhat outmoded, but still useful, category of “plants”. Most of them are the green (more than 1800 species), brown (about 2000 species) or red (over 7200 species). Most people know two general categories of seaweeds: wracks (species of the brown algal order Fucales such as Fucus) and kelps (species of the brown algal order Laminariales such as Laminaria), Dulse or Dillisk (also a red alga, Palmaria palmata), and Carrageen or Irish Moss (usually the red alga, Chondrus crispus) – frequently used as a clarifying agent in beer brewing. Seaweeds are found throughout the world’s oceans and seas and none is known to be poisonous. Many are actually nice to eat and are even considered a great delicacy in many Asian countries

Commercial Examples: Funky Sea Monkey | Monkey Paw Brewing Co.; Nimble Lips, Noble Tongue Vol. 3 (2014) IPA With Squid Ink  / Really Squiddy Waterslides | 3 Sheeps Brewing Co.    

Also Known As: Amanori; Ana-amanori; Asakusa nori; Beni-tasa; California laver; Casóg; Chi Choy; Chi Tsai; Chishima Kuro-nori
Nori is the Japanese name for an edible seaweed species of the red algae genus Pyropia including P.vezonensis and P.tenera. It is cultivated around the coast and harvested from November to April. The original Nori was a paste, and a form of it is still popular in Japan, but today the term is commonly used to refer only to the dark green paper-thin sheets used in sushi bars. Nori is usually found in stores as pressed, dried sheets of seaweed. This seaweed is a type of red algae, although by the time it’s dried and ready to eat it’s dark green; almost black in color. Korea and Japan both produce billions of sheets of Nori each year, but increasingly cheaper grades are being supplied by China.

Commercial Examples: Nori-Torious | Scout Brewing Co. Kansom Abalone And Nori Maki Lager | Red Duck; Nori | Cierzo Brewing Co.

Also Known As: Bull kelp, Sugar kelp, Giant kelp
Kelp is a brown algae and a type of seaweed. There are 124 known species of kelp in existence. Seaweed is a term which can be used to describe many different marine-based species of plants and algae. But sea kelp is more specific, it describes  the largest subgroup of seaweed. Kelp is most often found along rocky coastlines, and only in saltwater. Kelp grows in forests and sequesters five times that of land-based trees on average. While sea urchins love to try and latch onto kelp and use it as a feeding ground, sea otters protect kelp by eating the urchins from its blades and using the kelp as a form of protection and habitation.

Commercial Examples: Kelpie Seaweed Ale | Williams Brothers Brewing Co.; Sea Belt | Marshall Wharf Brewing Co.; Kelp Stout | Tofino Brewing Co.

Also Known As: O-Wakame; Ito-Wakame; Kizami-Wakami; Miyok; Nambu-Wakame; Precious Sea Grass; Sea Mustard
The sea vegetables wakame and nori has been a part of the Japanese diet since ancient times. Wakame is found on the Pacific coast of Japan anywhere south of the town of Muroran in Hokkaido, and on the Japan sea coast on the coast line of Hokkaido. Sanriku, Naruto and Izumo are particularly famous harvesting grounds for wakame. It is also readily dispersed and has become rated as “alien and invasive” in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Western Europe. Most wakame is preserved, either by being dried or salted. It is often used as an ingredient in miso soup and vinegared salads called sunomono. Glutamate, an umami substance of wakame, is more abundant in wakame shoots than the leafy parts:

Commercial Examples: Wakame Forever | HOB Brewing (Dunedin); Gose Passion Wakamé | Brasserie Toussaint

Also Known As: Rockweed; Red fucus; Dyers fucus; Rock wrack; Black tang; Bladder fucus
Although the name may be a bit odd, bladderwrack is one of the most common types of seaweed found in the oceans. This kelp variety has the scientific name Fucus vesiculosus, as it is known around the British Isles, Europe, the Baltic Sea, and even the eastern coast of North America.  This type of seaweed prefers sheltered inlets without too much movement or current and can be  found in huge numbers in certain areas. The main stem of bladderwrack, known as the thallus, is used medicinally. The thallus has tough, air-filled pods or bladders to help the algae float—thus the name bladderwrack.

Commercial Examples: Bladderwrack | Famous Railway Tavern Brewing Co.

Also Known As: Dasima; Haidai
Kombu is an edible kelp mostly from the family Laminariaceae and is widely eaten in East Asia. Kelp features in the diets of many civilizations, including Chinese and Icelandic; however, the largest consumers of kelp are the Japanese, who have incorporated kelp and seaweed into their diets for over 1,500 years. There are about eighteen edible species in Iand most of them, but not all, are called kombu. Each type has slightly different flavors and textures. Most common are Ma Kombu – thick and wide; Rishiri Kombu – thin and very hard; Hidaka Kombu – greenish blackish color; and Rausu Kombu – thin and really wide.

Commercial Example: Oceanic Funk | Epic Ales (Washington)